How to Find OER For Your Course – An Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER) (2024)

How to Find OER For Your Course – An Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER) (1)

1) Remove a barrier to adoption

Despite rising faculty awareness of open educational resources, the #1 barrier to greater OER adoption is that 50% of faculty say it is “too hard to find what I need” when searching for content.

Source: Babson Survey Research Group’s “Opening the Textbook: Open Education Resources in U.S. Higher Education, 2017

2) Improve student outcomes

The costs of college is going up every year, and it’s not just tuition that weighs on student’s minds and bank accounts.According to the College Board, undergraduates spend an average of $1,200 on textbooks annually.

Faced with these costs, the academic impact is seen in classrooms across the country–many students choose to not buy a required text, take fewer courses, and some even drop or fail a course completely.

Open educational resourcesare a solution.

How to Find OER For Your Course – An Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER) (2)

3) Introduce the Open Textbook Library

The Open Textbook Library provides a growing catalog of free, peer-reviewed, and openly-licensed textbooks.

A growing network of higher education institutions and systems are supporting the library and the adoption of open textbooks as members of theOpen Textbook Network.

The library currently boasts over 700 open textbooks with reviews from over 1,200 faculty across the country.

4) Introduce Creative Commons

Creative Commons helps copyright holders maintain their intellectual property while simultaneouslysharing their work with others to freely reuse, build upon, and adapt for their specific audience.

This course willprovide an overview of the various licenses authors can use to openly publish their work, helpfaculty differentiate between those licensesfor the purpose of reuse and adoption, and most importantly: how to find works under Creative Commons licenses.

Step 1: What is Creative Commons?


  • Accurately describe what Creative Commons is.
  • Define the various shorthands used in Creative Commons licenses.
  • Identify common areas of a webpage where Creative Commons logos are located.
  • Identify other forms of OER besides Creative Commons

Creative Commons is divided into global chapters; the poster below was created by Creative Commons Poland. It break downs the variousshorthands used in Creative Commons licenses.

Study each and familiarize yourself not only with what each set of letters stands for, but what actions the copyright holder is allowing you to do with that license. Specifically, think: how would this affect the way I teach?

Note: Most people consider BY-ND and BY-NC-ND licensesnot OER.Why? Because an ND “no derivatives” license does not allow you to participate in 5R activities. For the purposes of this course and the assignments below, however, it is acceptable to include resources with ND licenses.

This distinction also leads to another point of clarification. Creative Commons is not synonymous with OER. Rather, Creative Commons licenses (most of them at least)facilitate the creation and propagation of OER.

How to Find OER For Your Course – An Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER) (3)

Now that we know whatCreative Commons is, how it relates to OER, and can define the various license types, let’s explore how to apply that knowledge. The first step: when looking at a webpage or other piece of content, how do you know if it has a Creative Commons license?

The video below details thecommon areas of a webpage where Creative Commons logos are located.

So, is Creative Commons the only type of openly-licensed content?

We’re glad you asked!

The answer is no.Creative Commons is the open license that popularized open educational resources, which has caused the two terms to be used synonymously by some. But this is misleading because a resource can be OER without carrying a Creative Commons license. And as we learned above, not all Creative Commons licenses are considered “open.” (Do you remember which license most people consider to not be OER?)

Generally speaking, OER can come in 3 other forms:

1. GNU License Suite

GNU is an organization sponsored by the Free Software Academy; GNU has produced a number of licenses relating to software. Some web material you may come across make use of the following:

  • GPL–GNU’s General Public License is used for many software packages, as well as other items. Under this license, materials can be copied and distributed verbatim, but cannot be changed in any way.
  • GFDL– The GNU Free Documentation License is a form ofcopyleftintended for use on a manual, textbook or other documents. Under this license, materials can be copied and redistributed with or without modifications, either commercially or non-commercially.

2. Public Domain

Content in the public domain means there is no copyright holder, making anyone free to reuse or remix for their purposes.Copyright has expired for all works published in the United States before 1923. In other words, if the work was published in the U.S. before January 1, 1923, you are free to use it in the U.S. without permission.Thisrule applies regardless of whether the work was created by an individual author, a group of authors, or an employee (a work made for hire).Because of legislation passed in 1998, no new works will fall into the public domain until 2019, when works published in 1923 will expire. In 2020, works published in 1924 will expire, and so on.

But there is another way a work can be in the public domain in addition to theYear-End Expiration of Copyright Terms rule. Original works can bedeliberately placed it in the public domain — this is known as “dedication.” If, upon viewing a work, you see words such as, “This work is dedicated to the public domain,” then it is free for you to use. Sometimes an author deliberately chooses not to protect a work and dedicates the work to the public. This type of dedication is rare, and unless there is express authorization placing the work in the public domain, do not assume that the work is free to use.

An additional concern is whether the person making the dedication has the right to do so. Only the copyright owner can dedicate a work to the public domain. Sometimes, the creator of the work is not the copyright owner and does not have authority. If in doubt, contact the copyright owner to verify the dedication.

3.Government-Produced Resources

Generally speaking, anything found on a .gov website is free to use. Technically, the reason government-produced content is free to use is because they are in the public domain, making this more of an extension to the discussion we just had on public domain content, but many people tend to think of government-produced content differentlyfrom works produced by everyday citizens. Examples of good government-produced OER arethe National Institute of Health’s Toxicology Tutorand NASA’sHistorical Studies in the Societal Impact of Spaceflighttextbook.

How to Find OER For Your Course – An Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER) (2024)
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